Últimas publicaciones sobre EPID en agosto y septiembre

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Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática (FPI)

Richeldi L, et al. Design of a phase III, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of BI 1015550 in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (FIBRONEER-IPF). BMJ Open Respir Res. 2023

Introduction: There is an unmet need for new treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The oral preferential phosphodiesterase 4B inhibitor, BI 1015550, prevented a decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in a phase II study in patients with IPF. This study design describes the subsequent pivotal phase III study of BI 1015550 in patients with IPF (FIBRONEER-IPF). Methods and analysis: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III trial, patients are being randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 9 mg or 18 mg of BI 1015550 or placebo two times per day over at least 52 weeks, stratified by use of background antifibrotics (nintedanib/pirfenidone vs neither). The primary endpoint is the absolute change in FVC at week 52. The key secondary endpoint is a composite of time to first acute IPF exacerbation, hospitalisation due to respiratory cause or death over the duration of the trial. Ethics and dissemination: The trial is being carried out in compliance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, in accordance with the International Council on Harmonisation Guideline for Good Clinical Practice and other local ethics committees. The results of the study will be disseminated at scientific congresses and in peer-reviewed publications.

Enfermedad Pulmonar Intersticial (EPI)

Calvin Lamas M, et al. Checklist for Pharmaceutical Care of the Patient with interstitial lung disease (CheckEPID): A Delphi-based consensus. Farm Hosp. 2023

Objective: To develop a checklist to facilitate pharmaceutical care for patients with interstitial lung disease who require or are undergoing treatment with antifibrotic drugs. Method: Five hospital pharmacists developed an initial list of 37 items divided into 4 blocks: 1) First visit, which included general patient data and data from the first treatment; 2) Follow-up visits, assessing aspects of the follow-up of the treatment with nintedanib or pirfenidone; 3) Telepharmacy, consisting of the evaluation of the inclusion of patients in a program of this type, course of the disease, and identification of the contact with the pharmacy service; 4) Non-pharmacological treatment and patient information. To decide its potential inclusion in the checklist, two rounds of the Delphi were carried out in which the panelists had to assess the degree of agreement of each proposed item according to its "utility", which was the determining criterion for its inclusion, and its "applicability". Results: 48 hospital pharmacists were contacted, 30 (63%) agreed in writing to participate, 28 (58%) completed the first round of the Delphi, and 27 (56%) completed the second round. After the first round of the Delphi the questionnaire was amended and comprised 40 items. Of the 40 items evaluated after the two rounds of the Delphi, there were two that, based on utility, the participants did not reach consensus for inclusion in the checklist: The one referring to "History of surgical intervention, specifically abdominal surgery in the last 4 weeks" (finally kept on the checklist due to its involvement in the indication of nintedanib) and to make recommendations on "Relaxation". No consensus was reached on their applicability for two of the items: "Patient stratification according to the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH) chronic patient model" and "Collection of Results Reported by the Patient". Conclusions: The management of patients with ILD and/or pulmonary fibrosis is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach where the hospital pharmacist plays a key role, especially, although not only, in monitoring drug treatment. We believe that this checklist can contribute from pharmaceutical care to improving the integrated care of patients with ILD who require or are undergoing treatment with antifibrotic drugs.

Patel AS. Interstitial lung abnormalities: do symptoms matter? ERJ Open Res. 2023

The largest population-based cohort study on interstitial lung abnormalities adds to the evidence of an association with impaired lung function and highlights the need to systematically identify early interstitial lung disease.

Fibrosis Pulmonar Progresiva (FPP)

Maher TM, et al. Design of a phase III, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of BI 1015550 in patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis (FIBRONEER-ILD). BMJ Open Respir Res. 2023

Introduction: Progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PPF) includes any diagnosis of progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, disease progression appears comparable between PPF and IPF, suggesting a similar underlying pathology relating to pulmonary fibrosis. Following positive results in a phase II study in IPF, this phase III study will investigate the efficacy and safety of BI 1015550 in patients with PPF (FIBRONEER-ILD). Methods and analysis: In this phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients are being randomised 1:1:1 to receive BI 1015550 (9 mg or 18 mg) or placebo twice daily over at least 52 weeks, stratified by background nintedanib use. Patients must be diagnosed with pulmonary fibrosis other than IPF that is progressive, based on predefined criteria. Patients must have forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥45% predicted and haemoglobin-corrected diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ≥25% predicted. Patients must be receiving nintedanib for at least 12 weeks, or not receiving nintedanib for at least 8 weeks, prior to screening. Patients on stable treatment with permitted immunosuppressives (eg, methotrexate, azathioprine) may continue their treatment throughout the trial. Patients with clinically significant airway obstruction or other pulmonary abnormalities, and those using immunosuppressives that may confound FVC results (cyclophosphamide, tocilizumab, mycophenolate, rituximab) or high-dose steroids will be excluded. The primary endpoint is absolute change from baseline in FVC (mL) at week 52. The key secondary endpoint is time to the first occurrence of any acute ILD exacerbation, hospitalisation for respiratory cause or death, over the duration of the trial. Ethics and dissemination: The trial is being carried out in accordance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, the International Council on Harmonisation Guideline for Good Clinical Practice and other local ethics committees. The study results will be disseminated at scientific congresses and in peer-reviewed publications.

Kolb M, et al; INBUILD trial investigators. Effect of Nintedanib in Patients with Progressive Pulmonary Fibrosis in Subgroups with Differing Baseline Characteristics. Adv Ther. 2023

Introduction: In the INBUILD trial in patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), nintedanib slowed the rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC; mL/year) over 52 weeks compared with placebo. We assessed the efficacy of nintedanib across subgroups in the INBUILD trial by baseline characteristics. Methods: We assessed the rate of decline in FVC over 52 weeks and time to progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (absolute decline from baseline in FVC % predicted > 10%) or death over the whole trial in subgroups based on sex, age, race, body mass index (BMI), time since diagnosis of ILD, FVC % predicted, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLco) % predicted, composite physiologic index (CPI), GAP (gender, age, lung physiology) stage, use of anti-acid therapy and use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at baseline. Results: The effect of nintedanib versus placebo on reducing the rate of decline in FVC over 52 weeks was consistent across the subgroups by baseline characteristics analysed. Interaction p values did not indicate heterogeneity in the treatment effect between these subgroups (p > 0.05). Over the whole trial (median follow-up time 19 months), progression of ILD or death occurred in similar or lower proportions of patients treated with nintedanib than placebo across the subgroups analysed, with no heterogeneity detected between the subgroups. Conclusions: In the INBUILD trial, no heterogeneity was detected in the effect of nintedanib on reducing the rate of ILD progression across subgroups based on demographics, ILD severity or use of anti-acid therapy or DMARDs. These data support the use of nintedanib as a treatment for progressive pulmonary fibrosis.

Palmucci S, et al. Histogram-based analysis in progressive pulmonary fibrosis: relationships between pulmonary functional tests and HRCT indexes. Br J Radiol. 2023

Objectives: To investigate relationships between histogram-based high-resolution CT (HRCT) indexes and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in interstitial lung diseases. Methods: Forty-nine patients having baseline and 1-year HRCT examinations and PFTs were investigated. Histogram-based HRCT indexes were calculated; strength of associations with PFTs was investigated using Pearson correlation. Patients were divided into progressive and non-progressive groups. HRCT indexes were compared between the two groups using the U-test; within each group, baseline and follow-up Wilcoxon analysis was performed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used for predicting disease progression. Results: At baseline, moderate correlations were observed considering kurtosis and diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r = 0.54) and skewness and DLCO (r = 0.559), whereas weak but significant correlations were observed between forced vital capacity and kurtosis (r = 0.368, p = 0.009) and forced vital capacity and skewness (r = 0.391, p = 0.005). Negative correlations were reported between HAA% and PFTs (from r = -0.418 up to r = -0.507). At follow-up correlations between quantitative indexes and PFTs were also moderate, except for high attenuation area (HAA)% -700 and DLCO (r = -0.397). In progressive subgroup, moderate and strong correlations were found between DLCO and HRCT indexes (r = 0.595 kurtosis, r = 0.672 skewness, r=-0. 598 HAA% -600 and r = -0.626 HAA% -700). At follow-up, we observed significant differences between the two groups for kurtosis (p = 0.029), HAA% -600 (p = 0.04) and HAA% -700 (p = 0.02). To predict progression, ROC analysis reported sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 51.9% using a threshold value of δ kurtosis <0.03. Conclusion: At one year, moderate correlations suggest that progression could be assessed through HRCT quantification.

Maher TM, et al. Decline in forced vital capacity as a surrogate for mortality in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Respirology. 2023

Background and objective: Surrogate endpoints enable determination of meaningful treatment effects more efficiently than applying the endpoint of ultimate interest. We used data from trials of nintedanib in subjects with pulmonary fibrosis to assess decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) as a surrogate for mortality. Methods: Data from the nintedanib and placebo groups of trials in subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, other forms of progressive pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary fibrosis due to systemic sclerosis (NCT00514683, NCT01335464, NCT01335477, NCT01979952, NCT02999178, NCT02597933) were pooled. Using joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data, we assessed the association between decline in FVC % predicted and time to death over 52 weeks. The rate of change in FVC % predicted and the current value of FVC % predicted were modelled longitudinally and estimates applied as predictors in time-to-event models. Results: Among 2583 subjects with pulmonary fibrosis, both a greater rate of decline in FVC % predicted and a lower current value of FVC % predicted were associated with an increased risk of death over 52 weeks (HR 1.79 [95% CI: 1.57, 2.03] and HR 1.24 [1.17, 1.32] per 5-percentage point decrease, respectively). Associations between the rate of change in FVC % predicted and the risk of death were consistent between patients with IPF and other ILDs. Conclusion: Data from clinical trials in subjects with pulmonary fibrosis of diverse aetiology demonstrate a strong association between decline in FVC % predicted and mortality over 52 weeks, supporting FVC decline as a surrogate for mortality in these patients.

Investigación básica - Biomarcadores

Motta F, Tonutti A, Isailovic N, Ceribelli A, Costanzo G, Rodolfi S, Selmi C, De Santis M. Proteomic aptamer analysis reveals serum biomarkers associated with disease mechanisms and phenotypes of systemic sclerosis. Front Immunol. 2023

Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease that affects multiple organs, leading to elevated morbidity and mortality with limited treatment options. The early detection of organ involvement is challenging as there is currently no serum marker available to predict the progression of SSc. The aptamer technology proteomic analysis holds the potential to correlate SSc manifestations with serum proteins up to femtomolar concentrations. Methods: This is a two-tier study of serum samples from women with SSc (including patients with interstitial lung disease - ILD - at high-resolution CT scan) and age-matched healthy controls (HC) that were first analyzed with aptamer-based proteomic analysis for over 1300 proteins. Proposed associated proteins were validated by ELISA first in an independent cohort of patients with SSc and HC, and selected proteins subject to further validation in two additional cohorts. Results: The preliminary aptamer-based proteomic analysis identified 33 proteins with significantly different concentrations in SSc compared to HC sera and 9 associated with SSc-ILD, including proteins involved in extracellular matrix formation and cell-cell adhesion, angiogenesis, leukocyte recruitment, activation, and signaling. Further validations in independent cohorts ultimately confirmed the association of specific proteins with early SSc onset, specific organ involvement, and serum autoantibodies. Conclusions: Our multi-tier proteomic analysis identified serum proteins discriminating patients with SSc and HC or associated with different SSc subsets, disease duration, and manifestations, including ILD, skin involvement, esophageal disease, and autoantibodies.

Jia Q, et al. Circulating inflammatory cytokines and risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a Mendelian randomization study. 2023

Background: The previous epidemiological and experimental evidence has implied the linkage between chronic inflammation to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, it was still unclear whether there were casual associations between circulating inflammatory cytokines and IPF development. The objective of present study was to examine whether altered genetically predicted concentration of circulating cytokines were associated with IPF development using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Materials and methods: The causal effects of 23 circulating inflammatory cytokines were evaluated on IPF using MR analysis. The primary approach of MR analysis was the inverse variance-weighted (IVW) method. The sensitivity analyses were conducted by simple median, weighted median, penalized weighted median and MR-Egger regression methods. Results: The present MR study found suggestive evidence that a higher circulating IL-14 level was associated with an increased risk of IPF (random effects IVW method: odds ratio: 1.001, 95% confidence interval: 1.000-1.001, P = 0.026). The sensitivity analysis yielded directionally similar results for IL-14. There was no significant association found between other circulating inflammatory cytokines and IPF. Conclusion: The high level of IL14 predicted by genes had a casual relationship with the increased risk of IPF. This finding provided epidemiological evidence for drug therapy targeting inflammatory factors in the prevention and treatment of IPF. It's warranted further exploration to validate the clinical significance of IL14 associated with developmental risk of IPF.

Mendoza N, et al. Blood Immunophenotypes of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Relationship with Disease Severity and Progression. Int J Mol Sci. 2023

1) The role of the immune response in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains controversial. We hypothesized that peripheral blood immune phenotypes will be different in IPF patients and may relate to the disease severity and progression. (2) Whole blood flow cytometry staining was performed at diagnosis in 32 IPF patients, and in 32 age- and smoking-matched healthy controls. Thirty-one IPF patients were followed up for one year and categorized as stable or progressors based on lung function, deterioration and/or death. At 18-60 months, immunophenotypes were characterized again. (3) The main results showed that: (1) compared to matched controls, at diagnosis, patients with IPF showed more neutrophils, CD8+HLA-DR+ and CD8+CD28- T cells, and fewer B lymphocytes and naïve T cells; (2) in IPF, circulating neutrophils, eosinophils and naïve T cells were associated with lung function abnormalities; (3) patients whose disease progressed during the 12 months of follow-up showed evidence of cytotoxic dysregulation, with increased CD8+CD28- T cells, decreased naïve T cells and an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio at baseline; and (4) blood cell alterations were stable over time in survivors. (4) IPF is associated with abnormalities in circulating immune cells, particularly in the cytotoxic cell domain. Patients with progressive IPF, despite antifibrotic therapy, present an over-activated and exhausted immunophenotype at diagnosis, which is maintained over time.

Stock CJW, et al. Serum C-reactive protein is associated with earlier mortality across different interstitial lung diseases. Respirology. 2023

Background and objective: The acute-phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) is known to be associated with poor outcomes in cancer and cardiovascular disease, but there is limited evidence of its prognostic implications in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). We therefore set out to test whether baseline serum CRP levels are associated with mortality in four different ILDs. Methods: In this retrospective study, clinically measured CRP levels, as well as baseline demographics and lung function measures, were collected for ILD patients first presenting to the Royal Brompton Hospital between January 2010 and December 2019. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the relationship with 5-year mortality. Results: Patients included in the study were: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) n = 422, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (fHP) n = 233, rheumatoid arthritis associated ILD (RA-ILD) n = 111 and Systemic Sclerosis associated ILD (SSc-ILD) n = 86. Patients with a recent history of infection were excluded. Higher CRP levels were associated with shorter 5-year survival in all four disease groups on both univariable analyses, and after adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, immunosuppressive therapy and baseline disease severity (IPF: HR (95% CI): 1.3 (1.1-1.5), p = 0.003, fHP: 1.5 (1.2-1.9), p = 0.001, RA-ILD: 1.4 (1.1-1.84), p = 0.01 and SSc-ILD: 2.7 (1.6-4.5), p < 0.001). Conclusion: Higher CRP levels are independently associated with reduced 5-year survival in IPF, fHP, RA-ILD and SSc-ILD.


Bandyopadhyay D, et al. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary fibrosis: joining the dots. Eur Respir Rev. 2023

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. A minority of patients with sarcoidosis develop sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary fibrosis (SAPF), which may become progressive. Genetic profiles differ between patients with progressive and self-limiting disease. The mechanisms of fibrosis in SAPF are not fully understood, but SAPF is likely a distinct clinicopathological entity, rather than a continuum of acute inflammatory sarcoidosis. Risk factors for the development of SAPF have been identified; however, at present, it is not possible to make a robust prediction of risk for an individual patient. The bulk of fibrotic abnormalities in SAPF are located in the upper and middle zones of the lungs. A greater extent of SAPF on imaging is associated with a worse prognosis. Patients with SAPF are typically treated with corticosteroids, second-line agents such as methotrexate or azathioprine, or third-line agents such as tumour necrosis factor inhibitors. The antifibrotic drug nintedanib is an approved treatment for slowing the decline in lung function in patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases, but more evidence is needed to assess its efficacy in SAPF. The management of patients with SAPF should include the identification and treatment of complications such as bronchiectasis and pulmonary hypertension. Further research is needed into the mechanisms underlying SAPF and biomarkers that predict its clinical course.



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