Últimas publicaciones sobre EPID en octubre

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Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática (FPI)

Achaiah A, et al. Neutrophil levels correlate with quantitative extent and progression of fibrosis in IPF: results of a single-centre cohort study. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2023

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic lung disease with poor prognosis. Clinical studies have demonstrated association between different blood leucocytes and mortality and forced vital capacity (FVC) decline. Here, we question which blood leucocyte levels are specifically associated with progression of fibrosis, measured by accumulation of fibrosis on CT scan using a standardised automated method. Methods: Using the Computer-Aided Lung Informatics for Pathology Evaluation and Rating CT algorithm, we determined the correlation between different blood leucocytes (<4 months from CT) and total lung fibrosis (TLF) scores, pulmonary vessel volume (PVV), FVC% and transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide% at baseline (n=171) and with progression of fibrosis (n=71), the latter using multivariate Cox regression. Results: Neutrophils (but not monocyte or lymphocytes) correlated with extent of lung fibrosis (TLF/litre) (r=0.208, p=0.007), PVV (r=0.259, p=0.001), FVC% (r=-0.127, p=0.029) at baseline. For the 71 cases with repeat CT; median interval between CTs was 25.9 (16.8-39.9) months. Neutrophil but not monocyte levels are associated with increase in TLF/litre (HR 2.66, 95% CI 1.35 to 5.25, p=0.005). Conclusion: Our study shows that neutrophil rather than monocyte levels correlated with quantifiable increase in fibrosis on imaging of the lungs in IPF, suggesting its relative greater contribution to progression of fibrosis in IPF. Keywords: Innate Immunity; Interstitial Fibrosis.

EPI asociada a Esclerosis Sistémica (EPI-ES)

Raghu G, et al. Treatment of Systemic Sclerosis-associated Interstitial Lung Disease: Evidence-based Recommendations. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2023

Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). To date, clinical practice guidelines regarding treatment for patients with SSc-ILD are primarily consensus based. Methods: An international expert guideline committee composed of 24 individuals with expertise in rheumatology, SSc, pulmonology, ILD, methodology, and with personal experience with SSc-ILD discussed systematic reviews of the published evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Predetermined conflict-of-interest management strategies were applied, and recommendations were made for or against specific treatment interventions exclusively by the nonconflicted panelists. The confidence in effect estimates, the importance of outcomes studied, balance of desirable and undesirable consequences of treatment, cost, feasibility, acceptability of the intervention, and implications to health equity were all considered in making the recommendations. This was in accordance with the American Thoracic Society guideline development process that is in compliance with the Institute of Medicine standards for trustworthy guidelines. Results: For treatment of patients with SSc-ILD, the committee: (1) recommends the use of mycophenolate; (2) recommends further research into the safety and efficacy of (a) pirfenidone and (b) the combination of pirfenidone plus mycophenolate; and (3) suggests the use of (a) cyclophosphamide, (b) rituximab, (c) tocilizumab, (d) nintedanib, and (e) the combination of nintedanib plus mycophenolate. Conclusions: The recommendations herein provide an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the treatment of patients with SSc-ILD and are intended to serve as the basis for informed and shared decision-making by clinicians and patients.

Fibrosis Pulmonar Progresiva (FPP)

Løkke A, et al. Burden of Disease and Productivity Loss in the European Economic Area in Patients Affected by Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease. Adv Ther. 2023

Introduction: Progression of fibrosis in interstitial lung diseases (ILD) has been associated with poor prognosis, lower quality of life for patients and caregivers, and higher healthcare costs. This study estimated the burden of disease and productivity loss of progressively fibrosing ILD, focusing on progressive pulmonary fibrosis other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (non-IPF PPF) and systemic sclerosis-associated ILD (SSc-ILD) in the European Economic Area (EEA). Methods: An economic model was built to estimate the clinical burden of SSc-ILD and non-IPF PPF. The model was based on published data on disease prevalence and disease burden (in terms of comorbidities, exacerbations, and deaths) as well as on productivity loss (in terms of sick days, early retirement, permanent disability, and job loss). Aggregate income loss was obtained by multiplying productivity loss by the median daily income in each country/area of investigation. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the impact of the variability of the model assumptions. Results: In the whole EEA, a total of 86,794 and 13,221 individuals were estimated to be affected by non-IPF PPF and SSc-ILD, respectively. Estimated annual sick days associated with the diseases were 3,952,604 and 672,172, early retirements were 23,174 and 5341, permanently disabled patients were 41,748 and 4037, and job losses were 19,789 and 2617 for non-IPF PPF and SSc-ILD, respectively. Annual exacerbations were estimated to be 22,401-31,181 and 1259-1753, while deaths were 5791-6171 and 572-638 in non-IPF PPF and SSc-ILD, respectively. The estimated annual aggregate income loss in EEA, accounting for losses due to annual sick days, early retirements, and permanently disabled patients, was €1433 million and €220 million in non-IPF PPF and SSc-ILD, respectively. The productivity loss due to job losses was €194 million and €26 million in non-IPF PPF and SSc-ILD, respectively. The main driver of aggregate income loss variability was the prevalence. Conclusion: The impact of non-IPF PPF and SSc-ILD on society is definitely non-negligible. Actions to reduce the burden on our societies are highly needed.

Yang S, et al. Disease progression in patients with usual interstitial pneumonia and probable UIP patterns on computed tomography with various underlying etiologies: a retrospective cohort study. Front Med (Lausanne). 2023

Background: Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is a pattern of interstitial pneumonia that is caused by different etiologies. This study aimed to investigate the transplant-free survival (TFS) and the decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) of the patients with UIP and probable UIP patterns on CT caused by various underlying conditions. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, enrolling patients with interstitial lung disease exhibiting a CT pattern consistent with UIP or probable UIP. Clinical and prognostic data of patients categorized by the etiology were compared. Results: A total of 591 patients were included and classified into the following groups: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 320), connective tissue disease (CTD)-UIP (n = 229), asbestosis-UIP (n = 28), and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP)-UIP (n = 14). Advanced age, elevated levels of serum cytokeratin fraction 21-1 and percentage of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage were observed in all groups. IPF patients showed a more rapid decline in FVC (133.9 mL/year) compared to CTD-UIP (24.5 mL/year, p = 0.001) and asbestosis-UIP (61.0 mL/year, p = 0.008) respectively. Sub-analysis of CTD-UIP revealed that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-UIP (88.1 mL/year) or antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV)-UIP (72.9 mL/year) experienced a faster deterioration in FVC compared to those with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS)-UIP (25.9 mL/year, p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that IPF had the poorest TFS (median 55.9 months), followed by HP-UIP (57.5 months), CTD-UIP (66.7 months), and asbestosis-UIP (TFS not reached). RA-UIP or AAV-UIP did not exhibit any prognostic advantages compared to IPF, while asbestosis-UIP and pSS-UIP showed better survival rates. Conclusion: Patients with UIP caused by different underlying conditions share certain common features, but the trajectories of disease progression and survival outcomes differ.

Investigación básica - Biomarcadores

Zou M, et al. Plasma LTBP2 as a potential biomarker in differential diagnosis of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a pilot study. Clin Exp Med. 2023

Few biomarkers distinguish connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-2 (LTBP2), a secreted extracellular matrix protein, is involved in pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of LTBP2 in differentially diagnosing CTD-ILD and IPF is unclear. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays quantified plasma LTBP2 concentrations in 200 individuals (35 healthy controls, 42 CTD patients without ILD, 89 CTD-ILD patients, and 34 IPF patients). CTD-ILD and IPF were further classified based on chest imaging pattern and pulmonary function test results. Plasma LTBP2 levels were significantly elevated in the IPF group compared with the CTD-ILD group. ROC analysis further suggested the possible value of LTBP2 in differentially diagnosing CTD-ILD and IPF. Additionally, CTD-ILD patients with progressive lung fibrosis had higher plasma LTBP2 concentrations than those who did not. Similarly, patients with IPF developing acute exacerbation showed higher plasma LTBP2 levels than those with stable IPF. This is the first study showing that LTBP2 was closely associated with the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern in rheumatoid arthritis-associated ILD (RA-ILD). Moreover, the optimal cutoff values of LTBP2 for distinguishing IPF from CTD-UIP/RA-UIP were 33.75 and 38.33 ng/mL with an AUC of 0.682 and 0.681, respectively. Our findings suggest that plasma LTBP2 levels may differentially diagnose CTD-ILD and IPF, and assess their fibrotic activity. Additionally, clinical LTBP2 evaluation may be a great aid to identifying the presence of the UIP pattern in RA-ILD and to discriminating IPF from CTD-UIP, particularly RA-UIP.

Yang B, et al. Systemic sclerosis and risk of bronchiectasis: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2023

Background: The association between systemic sclerosis and the development of bronchiectasis is unclear. This study aimed to compare the risk of bronchiectasis between individuals with systemic sclerosis and those without using a nationwide longitudinal dataset. Methods: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service dataset between 2010 and 2017, we identified 4845 individuals aged ≥ 20 years with systemic sclerosis and 24,225 without systemic sclerosis who were matched 1:5 by age and sex. They were followed up until the date of a bronchiectasis diagnosis, death, or December 31, 2019, whichever came first. Results: During a median follow-up period of 6.0 (interquartile range, 3.2-8.7) years, 5.3% of the systemic sclerosis cohort and 1.9% of the matched cohort developed bronchiectasis, with incidence rates of 9.99 and 3.23 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Even after adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of incident bronchiectasis was significantly higher in the systemic sclerosis cohort than in the matched cohort (adjusted hazard ratio 2.63, 95% confidence interval 2.22-3.12). A subgroup analysis of individuals with systemic sclerosis revealed that the risk of incident bronchiectasis was notably higher in younger individuals aged 20-39 years (P for interaction = 0.048) and in those without other coexisting connective tissue diseases (P for interaction = 0.006) than in their counterparts. Conclusions: The risk of incident bronchiectasis is higher in individuals with systemic sclerosis than those without. Bronchiectasis should be considered one of the pulmonary manifestations related to systemic sclerosis.

Soccio P, et al. Searching for airways biomarkers useful to identify progressive pulmonary fibrosis. BMC Pulm Med. 2023

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive disorder with unknown etiology. To date, the identification of new diagnostic, prognostic and progression biomarkers of IPF turns out to be necessary. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs which negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in several biological and pathological processes. An aberrant regulation of gene expression by miRNA is often associated with various diseases, including IPF. As result, miRNAs have emerged as potential biomarkers with relevance to pulmonary fibrosis. Several reports suggested that miRNAs are secreted as microvesicles or exosome, and hance they are stable and can be readily detected in the circulation. In the contest of miRNAs as circulating biomarkers, different studies show their role in various types of interstitial lung diseases and suggest that these small molecules could be used as prognostic markers of the disease. Exosomes are small, lipid-bound vesicles able to carry various elements of the naïve cells such as proteins, lipids, mRNAs and miRNA to facilitate cell communication under normal and diseases condition. Exosomal miRNAs (exo-miRNA) have been studied in relation to many diseases. However, there is little or no knowledge regarding exo-miRNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in IPF. Our study's aim is to evaluate the changes in the expression of two exo-miRNAs in BAL, respectively miR-21 and miR-92a, through highlighting the differences between IPF, progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PPF) and not-progressive pulmonary fibrosis (nPPF). Methods: Exosomes were characterized by Western Blot and Multiplex Surface Marker Analysis. Exosomal miRNA expression was performed by qRT-PCR. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test, based on data normality, was used to compare the differential expression between groups. Results: MiR-21 expression was significantly higher in the nPPF group than in both IPF and PPF. A result that could point above a possible role of miR-21, as a biomarker in the differential diagnosis between PPF and nPPF. MiR-92a, indeed, was down regulated in PPF compared to IPF and down regulated in PPF compared to nPPF. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the putative role of both miR-21 and miR-92a as possible biomarkers of pulmonary fibrosis progression. Moreover, the role of exo-miRNAs is examined as a possible future direction that could lead to new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of progressive and non-progressive pulmonary fibrosis.


Muruganandam M, et al. Biomarkers in the Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Systemic Sclerosis. J Inflamm Res. 2023

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by vascular damage, vasoinstability, and decreased perfusion with ischemia, inflammation, and exuberant fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Biomarkers are analytic indicators of the biological and disease processes within an individual that can be accurately and reproducibly measured. The field of biomarkers in SSc is complex as recent studies have implicated at least 240 pathways and dysregulated proteins in SSc pathogenesis. Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are classical biomarkers with well-described clinical classifications and are present in more than 90% of SSc patients and include anti-centromere, anti-Th/To, anti-RNA polymerase III, and anti-topoisomerase I antibodies. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is central to the fibrotic process of SSc and is intimately intertwined with other biomarkers. Tyrosine kinases, interferon-1 signaling, IL-6 signaling, endogenous thrombin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), lysophosphatidic acid receptors, and amino acid metabolites are new biomarkers with the potential for developing new therapeutic agents. Other biomarkers implicated in SSc-ILD include signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4), CD226 (DNAX accessory molecule 1), interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1), T-cell surface glycoprotein zeta chain (CD3ζ) or CD247, the NLR family, SP-D (surfactant protein), KL-6, leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG1), CCL19, genetic factors including DRB1 alleles, the interleukins (IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 IL-13, IL-16, IL-17, IL-18, IL-22, IL-32, and IL-35), the chemokines CCL (2,3,5,13,20,21,23), CXC (8,9,10,11,16), CX3CL1 (fractalkine), and GDF15. Adiponectin (an indicator of PPAR activation) and maresin 1 are reduced in SSc patients. A new trend has been the use of biomarker panels with combined complex multifactor analysis, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to determine disease activity and response to therapy. The present review is an update of the various biomarker molecules, pathways, and receptors involved in the pathology of SSc.

Martín-López M, et al. The Impact of Progressive Pulmonary Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease. J Clin Med. 2023

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by immune dysregulation and progressive fibrosis, typically affecting the skin, with variable internal organ involvement. Interstitial lung disease (ILD), with a prevalence between 35 and 75%, is the leading cause of death in patients with SSc, indicating that all newly diagnosed patients should be screened for this complication. Some patients with SSc-ILD experience a progressive phenotype, which is characterized by worsening fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), a decline in lung function, and premature mortality. To assess progression and guide therapeutic decisions, regular monitoring is essential and should include pulmonary function testing (PFT), symptom assessment, and repeat HRCT imaging when indicated. Multidisciplinary discussion allows a comprehensive evaluation of the available information and its consequences for management. There has been a shift in the approach to managing SSc-ILD, which includes the addition of targeted biologic and antifibrotic therapies to standard immunosuppressive therapy (particularly mycophenolate mofetil or cyclophosphamide), with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and lung transplantation reserved for refractory cases.

Bonella F, et al. Current and Future Treatment Landscape for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Drugs. 2023

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains a disease with poor survival. The pathogenesis is complex and encompasses multiple molecular pathways. The first-generation antifibrotics pirfenidone and nintedanib, approved more than 10 years ago, have been shown to reduce the rate of progression, increase the length of life for patients with IPF, and work for other fibrotic lung diseases. In the last two decades, most clinical trials on IPF have failed to meet the primary endpoint and an urgent unmet need remains to identify agents or treatment strategies that can stop disease progression. The pharmacotherapeutic landscape for IPF is moving forward with a number of new drugs currently in clinical development, mostly in phase I and II trials, while only a few phase III trials are running. Since our understanding of IPF pathogenesis is still limited, we should keep focusing our efforts to deeper understand the mechanisms underlying this complex disease and their reflection on clinical phenotypes. This review discusses the key pathogenetic concepts for the development of new antifibrotic agents, presents the newest data on approved therapies, and summarizes new compounds currently in clinical development. Finally, future directions in antifibrotics development are discussed.

Poerio A. Diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to systemic sclerosis (SSc) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and identification of 'progressive pulmonary fibrosis' using chest CT: a narrative review. Clin Exp Med. 2023

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent manifestation of connective tissue diseases (CTDs), with incidence and prevalence variously assessed in the literature but reported in up to 30% of patients, with higher frequency in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Recent years have seen a growing interest in the pulmonary manifestations of ILD-CTDs, mainly due to the widening of the use of anti-fibrotic drugs initially introduced exclusively for IPF, and radiologists play a key role because the lung biopsy is very rarely used in these patients where the morphological assessment is essentially left to imaging and especially HRCT. In this narrative review we will discuss, from the radiologist's point of view, the most recent findings in the field of ILD secondary to SSc and RA, with a special focus about the progression of disease and in particular about the 'progressive pulmonary fibrosis' (PPF) phenotype, and we will try to address two main issues: How to predict a possible evolution and therefore a worse prognosis when diagnosing a new case of ILD-CTDs and how to assess the progression of an already diagnosed ILD-CTDs.

Tuhy T, et al. Clinical features of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic sclerosis. Front Med (Lausanne). 2023

Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by disordered inflammation and fibrosis leading to skin thickening and visceral organ complications. Pulmonary involvement, in the form of pulmonary arterial hypertension and/or interstitial lung disease, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with scleroderma. There are no disease-specific therapies for pulmonary involvement of scleroderma, and pulmonary arterial hypertension in this cohort has typically been associated with worse outcomes and less clinical response to modern therapy compared to other forms of Group I pulmonary hypertension in the classification from the World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension. Ongoing research aims to delineate how pathologic microvascular remodeling and fibrosis contribute to this poor response and offer a window into future therapeutic targets.



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